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the Koran many precepts of incipient state, a missionary comsublime virtue, borrowed for the munion. Among its other plans most part from the pages of the it commissioned Mr. Southgate, Christian revelation. He there- one of its missionaries, to visit fore boasts himself of these ; he Turkey, and several of the counis not an idolater, as the hea. tries eastward of it, with a view then; he has also his fasts and to report as to the propriety of his prayers, and too often such establishing missions in those are the ignorance and debase- lands. The result of his travels ment of the corrupt nominal we have in the volumes before Christians who surround him, us, which however we shall not that he sees nothing to tempt report upon, as they relate him to prefer their creed or prac. chiefly to Armenia, Kurdistan, tice to his own. Indeed, the fal Persia, and Mesopotamia, though len state of the Christian churches the author gives us also some of the East is a fearful stum. Turkish information. In consebling block to the Mohammedan. quence of his statements, the While the professed disciples of American Protestant Episcopal Christ retained the doctrines and Board of Missions is commenc. precepts of their divine Master, ing a mission at Constantinople, his religion made rapid way, long and another among the Jacobite after the age of miracles, among Christians of Mesopotamia. The the oriental nations, but when object proposed will be chiefly to the churches of Asia fell into the aid in the resuscitation of the errors and evil deeds against Eastern churches; in which the which they had been warned in missionaries of several other the book of the Revelation, till at societies in Great Britain and length the apostacies of later ages America have already, for many supervened, Mohammed found years, taken a lively interest ; too easy a triumph for his blas- though little has been effected phemous inventions; and alas! worthy of a work of such magnithere was little vitality, and there tude and importance. The is now far less, in the eastern church of England enjoys pecucommunions of those who call liar advantages in prosecuting themselves Christians to combat this labour of love. We rememthem. As therefore Mohammed- ber being much struck with the anism has thriven upon corrupted awkward and invidious figure Christianity, a powerful means in which the zealous congregationthe hands of God to weaken and alist, Sereno Dwight, and his comdestroy it, is, by his blessing, to panion Eli Smith, made in their restore the churches of Asia to missionary tour in Asia Minor, the simplicity of the faith once Armenia, Georgia, and Persia, delivered to the saints, and to ten years ago, by reason of their those blessed fruits which will connecting episcopacy and the shew that they have been with use of a liturgy, which the Eas. Jesus, whom the followers of tern churches have enjoyed from Mohammed acknowledge to be a the times of the apostles, with prophet, though his precepts are the superstitions and corruptions so little adorned by his disciples. of later ages. What did those
It is a token for good upon churches know of the “ Amerithe Episcopal church
church in the can Board of Missions," under United States of America, that the auspices of which Mr. Dwight it has become, in a very marked and his friend travelled, or of the manner, notwithstanding its own sects which compose it? We
are far from disparaging the zea- plished by the advent of Christ, lous and useful labours of the so was the former by the advent godly men who conduct that of Mahomet, who was “paral. Society, or their excellent mis- lel to Jesus Christ and his typi. sionaries; but when the latter cal," his religion being "a procome to cope with the ancient, vidential arrangement” of Jeho. though decayed heretical, vah, “ acting co-ordinately with communions of the East, they Christianity to bring about that are greatly at a disadvantage. consummation spoken of in They carry no credentials which Scripture prophecy, when the one the people acknowledge. When true religion shall universally asked, Who ordained you prevail." We, on the contrary, What church do you belong to? consider it to be a direct and Who are your bishops ? Where powerful impediment in the way is your Liturgy? What creeds of the Gospel ; an impediment do you use ?-they can give no more formidable than paganism reply intelligible and satisfactory itself. For how stands the matto the inquirer. But the Church ter? Mr. Southgate—who, when of England will not ask Oriental speaking of Mohammedanism, Christians to cashier bishops, or assumes far too much of the to abolish any godly and edifying apologist, as if, like Mr. Forster, custom of ancient days, and to viewing it as a handmaid to the begin to found new churches Gospel-writes as follows : upon the principles of modern
“ The student of Islamism will often congregationalism. The conduct find occasion to remark that it holds & of her missionaries towards the middle place between Christianity and Syrian church in India, shews Paganism. This is not only true of its that she has adopted wiser and doctrines, which, in some points, apmore scriptural views; and the Bible, and, in others, border upon the
proach the eminent spirituality of the results prove that God will bless fantastic follies of heathenish superstiher labours in instructing, cor- tion; but its precepts also partake recting, and building up, where throughout of the same mingled charac
ter. Thus it is with the rank and duthe new lights of these our days ties which it assigns to woman. It would commence with subverting. neither exhibits the elevating influence
We differ in opinion, as will of Christianity, nor the degrading tenbe seen by the preceding remarks, dencies of idolatry. It raises her above from those who think that Mo- cepting our own, has ever assigned to
the rank which any other system, exhammedanism furnishes a half- her, but it leaves room for much higher way-house, or vantage ground, improvement. between Paganism and Chris
The institutions of Mohammed in tianity. Mr. Chancellor Fors- The remark may create surprise, but I
this particular are worthy only of praise. ter, examining chaplain to the do not utter it incautiously. We are late Bishop Jebb, has undertaken not to judge of the false prophet of Is. to prove, in his “ Mahometanism lamism by our standard, but by that
which he had before his own eyes. He Unveiled," that this system of
was an Arab, born a pagan. The reliimposture is the appointed and gion in which he was nurtured was as favoured handmaid to the Gospel ;
unfavourable in its influences upon an improvement, it would seem,
woman, as any form of heathenism that
ever existed. It was, throughout, deupon Judaism, though not so
basing and polluting. He undertook good as Christianity ; that God its reform. He raised the Arab female gave it by promise to Abraham from her degradation. He made disfor Ishmael, as Judaism and
tinct provision for her relief from many Christianity for Isaac; that as
of the wicked prejudices to which she
had been subjected. The evils which the latter promise was accom- he could not remove he suffered to reCarist, Obsery. No. 35.
main. They reappear on the pages of not, for the Trinitarian does not the Koran, but they are not original believe in three Gods. It is there. They are only copies transferred from the immemorial usages of his
easier to convince a Pagan of the people. He tolerated them, but he did truth of this matter, than a Mo. not create them. On the contrary, in hammedan ; not however because most instances be impliedly condemns the Pagan is a polytheist, but wbile he allows them. Thus he gives because when he comes to believe permission to husbands to chastise their wives, if disobedient ; but he recom- the unity of the Godbead, which mends, at the same time, that they avoid even what is called natural reli. all canses of quarrel. Divorce, too, gion is sufficient to prove, he has though allowed, is strongly disapproved. Reconciliation is pronounced preferable
no pre-conceived opinion as to to separation, and mediation is set be- the mode of subsistence ; wherefore chastisement. Even here is im. as the disciple of Mahomet has provement, the design being to abate been trained to repugn the Chrisevils which probably could not be removed.
tian doctrine; and we believe “If now we turn to the other side of that one express and prominent the picture, and observe the positive design of the false prophet was institutions of the Koran, we shall find still highe reasons to free its author Trinity which he found prevailing
to oppose the doctrine of the from censure, bowever much its precepts may fall below the benign institu- throughout Christendom ; tions of Christianity.”
he did so in the most subtle man. Again, speaking of the funda. ner, by declaring that • Jesus mental article of the Moham
Christ was, like himself, a teacher medan creed, that “ There is no
sent from God. He had no obGod but God, and Mohammed jection to calling Christ a proin his Apostle,” Mr. Southgate phet. All he wished to rob him
of was his Divinity; for that says :
being taken away, the whole “ This passage bears a remarkable fabric of Christianity falls to the resemblance to one in the New Testa. ment, John xvii. 3: “And this is life ground, and an opening is left eternal, that they might know Thee for the introduction of Moham. the only true God, and Jesus Christ medanism or any other invention. whom thou hast sent. The one may So far from thinking with Mr. have suggested the other."
Southgate, that we gain anything Now all this appears to us by the alleged parallel between quite wrong. Heathenism does the first article of the Moslem not specifically oppose Christian- creed, and the Scripture declaraity; it knows nothing of it; it is tion which he refers to, we bedirectly contrary to it ; but it is lieve that the Moslem article of not so by design and upon cal. faith was designedly constructed culation. But Mohammedanism to contravene the Christian; and was invented after it, and with a if, as Mr. Southgate supposes, the view to supersede it. It does arch-imposter had that particular not, as Mr. Southgate asserts, passage of Holy Writ in his mind, hold - a middle place between his parody upon it was as blasChristianity and Paganism." phemous as it was insidious. So Even its primary doctrine, that far from finding any parallel, as there is but one God, though Mr. Southgate does, we find the a doctrine of Holy Writ, is urged strongest possible opposition. by Mohammedans, as by those The truth acknowledged in comwho call themselves “ Unitarian mon is merely an article of Christians," against the doctrine natural religion, as is shewn by of the Trinity, as if the one con- the apostle Paul in the first chaptradicted the other; which it does ter to the Romans; Mahomet sacrificed nothing by avowing it, situated the churches of Epheand Christianity gains nothing sus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyaspecific by the avowal; but the tira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laosubstitution of the divine mission dicea, all of which places are now of Mahomet for that of Christ, is under the sway of the false Prothe pregnant part of the sentence. phet, and of which Smyrna alone
Then again, as to all the rest retains its ancient prosperity, that Mr. Southgate says about the others being desolate Turkish Mohammedanism having its villages. Yet we believe, and sacred books, and ritual, and are sure, that in the purposes of prayers, and fastings, and the Jehovah, even this dreary region like, so far from these being pre- shall be visited by the bright paratives for the reception of beams of the Sun of righteousChristianity, they are only obsta- ness, and the Crescent shall cles; as it is easier to fill an wane before the effulgence of the empty tank with pure water, Cross. At present the prospect than first to empty and cleanse is dark, and the difficulties are one that has been choked up apparently insuperable ; but still with mire and rubbish, and then some openings occur for Christo fill it. In dealing with the tian enterprise, through the Hindoos, it has not been found medium of commercial interconducive to the propagation of course, and in other ways; and Christianity among them, to lay if more were done for conveying hold of something which may be scriptural knowledge, and promade to assume a forced resem. moting, by the divine blessing, blance to some fact or doctrine of a revival of piety among the Holy Writ-as for instance the degenerate native Christians, the Avaturs, or incarnations of their effect upon the Mohammedan deities--and to make it an intro- population might be very powerduction to, or apology for, the ful; for hitherto they cannot be new doctrine. It is best to keep said to know what Christianity the line of demarcation every is, amidst the ignorance and dewhere well-defined ; and to tell basements which conceal its fair men, at once and plainly, that the visage. Gospel is intended to bring all We must reserve our cursory things into obedience to Christ. notes upon that most remarkable
Asia Minor is a land of melan- of all lands, Syria, to our next choly recollections; for here were Number.
VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
The Turkish and Egyptian question has allowing of any parley, upon the expibecome increasingly complicated. Me- ration of the ten days, accorded to the hemet Ali declined acceding to the offer Pasha for deliberation, declared the proposed to him by the Porte, in con- offer cancelled, and proceeded to depose junction with England, Russia, Austria, his rebellious subject. This ungracious and Prussia, of the hereditary vice- promptitude was displeasing to the royalty of Egypt, and the retention of allies, who desired to keep open the the pashalic of Acre for his life; in door to negociation; hoping to prevent addition to which he humbly requested the further horrors and fearful continthe Sultan to be permitted to hold for gencies of war, and perbaps wishing to life the remaining pashalics of Syria. allow France to act as a conciliator, so His imperial master, however, without as to gain the main objects, and yet by some minor concessions to give both difficulties in wbich M. Thiers has been the King of the French and the Pasha a main instrument of placing them. It of Egypt an honourable opportunity of augurs well for peace that both the adjusting the question.
British Government and people, and the In the mean time the English squa. king of the French and his new minis. dron in the Levant, in conjunction with ters, are anxious to maintain it ; though the Turkish Aeet, and the almost no- there is a strong war party in France, minal vaval aid of Austria, has block- wbose mischievous efforts bave done aded the ports of Syria and Egypt, and much to infame that highly susceptcommenced active hostile operations by ible, jealous, and martial people. But the bombardment of Beyrout, and other the solid-thinking men tbere, as here, maritime towns of Syria, and arming as must be averse to war; and we trust many of the natives as could be induced that their influence, both in the new to rise against their Egyptian conqueror, cabinet and the Chambers, will be able and to return to their allegiance to the to quell the voice of popular passion. Porte. Hitherto these operations have There is ample ground for reconsiderabeen favourable to the allies, and the tion and adjustment of the pending ques. whole coast of Syria is under their con- tion. France equally with the allies, trol; but the power which the Pasha as M. Thiers bimself states, guaranteed still retains in the interior, and the the integrity of the Ottoman empire ; approach of winter, presage many diffi- but the allies included in that guarantee culties, should the Pasha bring bis its defence against the ambition of Mewbole strength into the field: which he hemet Ali, whereas France, be says, would perhaps be enabled to do, as meant only that the Egyptian army France is pledged not to periit Egypt should not cross the mountains of to be snatched from him, so that he Taurus, and thus give Russia an er. would be tolerably secure in that quar. cuse for marching to Constantinople, ter, unless the allies should determine but not that Mehemet should disgorge to provoke a general European war. any of his usurped territory. But fare,
if it was the dictate of European policy We trust however, and believe, that to render Turkey strong in order to matters will not arrive at such an ex- ward off Russia, it was also necessary tremity. Lord Palmerston and M. not to allow Egypt to weaken it, and Thiers bave been, rather extra-offi. thereby enable Russia to take advantage cially, defending themselves in diplo- of its impotence. But practically the matic letters designed for popular cir- whole question has come to a single eulation; and though their explanations point,--namely, whether the Pasha of and polite recriminations bave not re- Egypt shall possess for life the governmoved the difficulties which beset the ment of the central and northern porquestion, they sbew that weither party tions of Syria. All parties are willing saw his way at once to relinquish the to concede to bim Egypt in perpetuity, pen for the sword; though M. Thiers and a life interest in the pasbalic of seemed well.inclined to do so, if the Acre (for the recent basty deposition of reasonable portion of his countrymen Mehemet by the Porte will doubtless would allow it. His policy has been to be rescinded, as has been requested by ingratiate himself with the revolution. the allies, if any reasonable prospect ary spirits which distract not only occurs of settling the dispute); but the France but all Europe ; and among question between France and the Pasha these, war, in any shape, especially war on the one hand, and the Porte and its with England, or whatever might lead allies on the other, is simply, whether to disturbance, and endanger the throne Mebemet shall retain for life the
pashaof Louis Philippe, is furiously coveted. lics of Damascus, Aleppo, and Tripoli. His dangerous machinations bave re- Now M. Tbiers contends, and so far ceived a check, by his dismissal from we think with justice, that if the integoffice, his royal master having refused rity of the Ottoman empire is to be re. to adopt the war-breathing expressions garded absolutely, the cession of Egypt which he wished to infuse into the speech is a breach of it; and that in principle from the throne at the approaching meet- there is as decided a violation by resigning of the Chambers. The king is en- ing the life government of Acre as by deavouring to collect around bim men adding to it the other three pasbalics. of more moderate doctrines; and in It is quite clear that the abstract ques. particular has appointed M. Guizot bis tion has been brokev in upon by all minister for foreign affairs ; and we parties ; and therefore the only practitrust that their accession to office will cal point is to wbat extent the breach enable Louis Philippe, without any dis- sball be allowed. We cannot see what honourable retractation, to extricate there should be in the consideration of both France and England from the this to provoke feelings of national