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Carta vniversal-Continued.

in which the East Indian Peninsula and the Southeastern part of China are reproduced. The supposition that Fernando Columbus was the author of this map is obviously a mistake. Neither on this map nor on Ribero's maps of 1529 is any mention made of Zipangu or Japan. The mariner-cosmographer has on his map placed only those newly discovered lands that had really been sighted by the Spaniards and Portuguese. Terra Australis, of whose existence the theoretical cosmographers were so convinced, is also omitted."

Consult also the following:

Bertuch, Frederick Justin. Einige bemerkungen über zwei der ältesten handschriftlichen welt-charten in der charten-sammlung sr. durchl. des herzogs von Sachsen-Weimar.

[In Allgemeine geographische ephemeriden. Jan. 1811. 8°. Weimar, 1811. v. 34, pp. 33-38]

Both by Diego Ribero, in 1527 and 1529.

Peucker, Carl. Discovery of a map by Columbus.

[In Royal geographical society. London. The Geographical journal. Jan. 1894. 8°. London, 1894. v. 3, no. 1, pp. 44-45]

This article translated into french by Gabriel Gravier is found in Société normande de géographie. Bulletin 1894. 8°. Rouen, 1894. v. 16, pp. 119-121. Redway, Jacques W. The first landfall of Columbus.

บ.

[In National (The) geographic magazine. Dec. 29, 1894. 8°. Washington, the
National geographic society, 1895. 6, pp. 179–192. 2 maps]
Ruge, Sophus. Das italienische Columbuswerk.
[In Petermanns mitteilungen. 1895. 4°. Gotha, J. Perthes, 1895.
pp. 279-288]

A review of Raccolta di documenti e studi publicati dalla R. Commissione
Colombiana pel quarto centenario dalla scoperta dell America. Rom. 1892-94.
Schoebel, Charles. La plus ancienne carte générale d'Amérique. 6 pp. 12°.
[Paris, 1877]

(Extrait des Actes de la Société américaine de France. Tome viii, 5e partie. 1877) Wieser, Franz von. Die carte des Bartolomeo Colombo über die vierte reise des admirals. 14 pp., 3 pl. 12°. Innsbruck, 1893.

This is a reprint from the "Mittheilungen des Instituts für Oesterr. geschichtsforschung" and contains facsimiles of the three supposed autograph maps of Bartholomew Columbus.

This article is translated into french and published in Société royale de géo-
graphie. Bulletin. 1894-1895. 8°. Anvers; veuve de Backer, 1895.
pp. 6-21, 3 maps.

v. 19.

Wolkenhauer, August. War die magnetische deklination vor Kolumbus erster reise nach Amerika tatsächlich unbekannt.

[In Deutsche geographische blätter. 8°. Bremen, 1904. v. 27, heft 3-4, pp. 158-175]

Ziegler, Alexander. Columbus und Martin Behaim.

[In Petermanns mitteilungen 1858. 4°. Gotha, J. Perthes, 1858.
429-432]

Thorne, Robert, d. 1527.

v. 41.

1527

Map roughly engraved on wood.

v. 4, pp.

LC 28

NOTE.-Nordenskiöld in his Facsimile-atlas, p. 71, states that this map of
Robert Thorne, of 1527, is with regard to the New World a minute copy of the

map in Reich's Margarita Philosophica, 1515. He also states that this map is the only printed map known to him between the years 1515-1519. On p. 103 is the following description: "Robert Thorne's map of 1527 (N. T. XII) This map is inserted into Richard Hakluyt's Divers Voyages touching the discouerie of America and the Ilands adiacent vnto the same, made first of all by our Englishmen and afterwards by the Frenchmen and Britons . . . with two mappes annexed heereunto for the plainer understanding of the whole matter... London 1582; reprinted in 1850 with a valuable introduction and illustrative notes by John Winter Jones, in Works issued by the Hakluyt Society. A long inscription on the right side of this map says that it was sent from Seville by the merchant Master Robert Thorne to Doctor Ley, Embassadour for king Henry the 8. to Charles the Emperour. Harrisse (Cabot, p. 176) supposed it to be based on the prototype of the planispheres in Weimar and on the map of Nuño Garcia de Torrena. This can only be the case as to the delineation of the New World, the work of Thorne being, as regards the Old World, so exact a copy of the map in Reisch's Margarita Philosophica of 1515 (N. T. XXXVIII) that no doubt is possible as to the principal source of Thorne's geographical knowledge of that part of the globe. But for the New World he evidently had access to other sources, probably consisting of hand-drawn Spanish maps. As regards the delineation of South America and the Isthmus of Panama, the map shows real progress. It is, also, specially interesting from the illustration here given of the controversies between the Spaniards and the Portuguese respecting the proper place of the famous Papal line of demarcation.

"The map has previously been reproduced in the Works issued by the Hakluyt society, London, 1850. The facsimile given on T. XLI is from a photograph of the original at the British Museum. Thorne was one of those wealthy, intelligent and enterprising merchants who energetically contributed to the development of England's commercial predominance at sea. In order to make it possible for English tradesmen to compete with those of Spain and Portugal, he was eager for the discovery of a northern passage to China, Japan, and India, and to promote voyages of discovery to achieve such a passage he sent memorials to Edward Leigh the English Ambassador in Madrid, and to King Henry VIII. It is these letters which Hakluyt has published in his above mentioned work, and which are of such importance to the history of geography."

See also various references to this map in Harrisse's Discovery of North America, In Kretschmer's Die entdeckung Amerika's the american portion is given “Nach Nordenskiöld."

The reprint of the book and reproduction of the map is found in:

Hakluyt, Richard. The principal navigations voyages, traffiques and discoveries of the english nation 8°. Glasgow, J. MacLehore & sons, 1903, v. 2, p. 176. "From the very rare Divers voyages touching the discoverie of America, published by Richard Hakluyt, 1582."

Consult a notice of the life of Thorne in Dictionary of national biography, v. 56, p. 294.

For a description of Hakluyt's Divers voyages consult the Church Catalogue, v. 1, pp. 290–292.

Only a few copies are known, of this work, which contain the original map. Consult also John Carter-Brown Catalogue, v. 1, p. 288–291.

A reproduction is also in the Kohl Collection, no. 39 and the american portion in Winsor's Narrative and critical history of America, v. 3, p. 17, and in Richard Brown's A history of the island of Cape Breton. London, 1869. p. 22. 85241°-12-3

1528

Paris Gilt or De Bure Globe. Anonymous.

LC 29

NOTE. A reproduction of this globe is pl. 21 " Atlas," of Marcel's Reproductions de cartes et de globes and description in "Text," pp. 71-73. For a description of this work cf. Phillips' List of Geographical Atlases, title 1138.

A reproduction is also given in Harrisse's Discovery of North America, which devotes pp. 562-568 to a full geographical and bibliographical description. Nordenskiöld's Periplus has the following, p. 154:

"(1528) Le globe doré or De Bure's globe in the Bibl. nationale of Paris.
(Circumference 0.70 m.) The globe is engraved on copper and gilded. The
title Nova et integra universi orbis descriptio are stamped thereon, but the author
and date are not mentioned. G. Marcel (Reprod. de cartes et de globes etc.,
Paris 1893) gives a detailed description of it and an incomplete representation
of the drawing of the Western Hemisphere. Asia is here made to join the
New World on the Southern part of which is inscribed "America inventa 1497."
The North part contains the name of Mare Tabin (!) Baccalearum reg., Terra
Francesca, Desertum Lop, Asia orientalis, Cathay (on the coast of the Mexican
Gulf which is called here Sinus S. Michaelis) Tebeth, etc. The drawing of
the globe corresponds with the double heart-shaped map of the world of 1531
by Orontius Finaeus (FA, pl. XLI), and with Schöner's globe of 1533. The
legends are in Latin with some few Germanisms, which lead Harrisse to the
conclusion that this is a German work. To me this seems extremely probable,
as the drawing of the globe exactly corresponds to Caspar Vopel's globe of 1542,
preserved in the town-archives of Cologne. Possibly it is of a later date (about
1540) than that cited above on the authority of Marcel and Harrisse."
Further on, p. 159, he states in connection with the Nancy Globe "Probably
the Globe Doré, no. 51, and this globe date from about the same time."
In comparing the reproductions of these two globes, they seem to differ in
many essential points.

A description of the Nancy globe, with reproduction, is found in the Magazine
of american history, march, 1881, v. 6, pp. 183–187, by B. F. De Costa. Also a
larger reproduction in Congrès international des américanistes. Compterendu,
2d session 1877. Luxembourg, 1878. v. 1, p. 359.

Jean Van Raemdonck, in his Les Sphères terrestre et céleste de Gérard Mercator
Saint-Nicolas, 1875, p. 27, refers to the Nancy globe, quoting an article by Jean
Blau entitled: Mémoire sur deux monuments géographiques conservés à la biblio-
thèque publique de Nancy. 1°. Un manuscrit de Ptolémée. 2°. Un globe de
vermeil en forme de coup. 56 pp., map. 8°. Nancy, xi imp. de mme veuve
Hisette, 1836. (Extrait des Mémoires de la Société royale des sciences, lettres et arts
de Nancy)

He furthermore describes the "Sphère de Bure" as follows:

"A la section géographique de la bibliothèque nationale à Paris, se voit une sphère terrestre en cuivre doré, ayant appartenu aux frères De Bure. Cette sphère dite De Bure et celle de Nancy, offrent dans leurs délinéations la ressemblance mutuelle la plus intime, et laissent encore confondus l'empire du grand Khan de Khathay et les terres de l'Amérique du nord désignées par le nom de Terra Francesca, et qui furent découvertes, en 1524, au nom de François I, par Jean de Verrazzanno, en sorte que l'archipel des Antilles semble répondre en même temps au Zipangu des mers d'Asie."

1529

Verrazzano, Gerolamo da.

Map of the world. Signed "Hieronimus de Verrazano faciebat." Undated. Ms. parchment. 260 x 130 cms. Original in Propaganda Library. Rome. No. 12 of Stevenson's facsimiles of same size as original. See also the Voyage of Verrazano by Henry C. Murphy. New York, 1875, p. 91, who also gives a reduced copy. Nordenskiöld's Periplus, p. 108; on p. 155 he says the date is gathered from the inscription: “Verrazana sive nova Gallia quale discopri 5 anni fa Giovanni da Verrazano fiorentino per ordine e commandamento del cristianissimo re di Francia." Shows Florida and Gulf of Mexico with coast names. LC 30

NOTE. A description of this map to accompany E. L. Stevenson's reproduction is found in his "Text and key maps, " referred to in Phillips' List of Geographical Atlases, title 1139. In Nordenskiöld's work above quoted he further states:

"Reproduced very incompletely and on a much reduced scale by James Carson Brevoort: Verrazano the Navigator, New York, 1874. The Indian peninsulas are given with fair correctness, but the Australasian islands, very imperfectly. Hieronymus Verrazano was a brother of the explorer Giovanni, who is said to have been hanged as a pirate in November 1527, by command of Charles v. The map is at the Propaganda Library in Rome. Formerly it belonged to Stefano Borgia."

See also:

Riproduzione della carta del Verrazzano del collegio di Propaganda fide in Roma 14 x 20 in. 1529.

[In Raccolta di documenti e studi pubblicati dalla R. commissione Colombiana pel quarto centenario dalla scoperta dell' America. fol. Roma, auspice il ministero della pubblica istruzione, 1892. pt. iv, v. 2, tav. 5 at end]

66

Accompanying “ Notizia delle più antiche carte geografiche che si trovano in Italia riguardanti l'America per Vittore Bellio."

"No. 1. Outline of the map of Hieronymus da Verrazano, 1529, in the Museum
of the Propaganda, Rome. Size: 102 x 51 inches. No. 2. The North American
coast line of no. 1, with the names from the original and now first published.
No. 3. The Northern section of Reinel's map, corresponding with New Found-
land section shown in no. 2. No. 4. Section of a map in the Ptolemy of 1513,
from which was derived the outline and several names for the Florida section in
no. 2. No. 5. Section of the globe of Vlpius, 1542, after the Verrazano map.
No. 6. Section of the Gastaldi-Ramusio map, from Verrazano. No. 7. Section
from the map of Allfonsce, 1543, after Verrazano. No. 8. Section of Lok's
map 1582, copied by him from the Verrazano map presented to Henry VIII.
All except no. 1 are shown on a scale one-fourth of the original."

[In Magazine (The) of american history. Edited by John Austin Stevens.
New York, A. S. Barnes, 1878. v. 2. p. 449]

sm. 4°.

The above eight maps are on one sheet, to accompany an article by B. F. De
Costa, on The Verrazano map.”

66

"Copy of part of the mapamundi drawn by Hieronimus de Verrazano about 1529. To illustrate a paper read before the Am. geographical society, nov. 28th, 1871. By J. C. Brevoort." 12 x 191.

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